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Rabu, 22 April 2009

Sejarah tsunami

Historically Significant Tsunamis
Earth movement, especially under the sea, can cause tsunamis, or large sea waves. Tsunamis can travel at very high rates of speed across hundreds of kilometers of ocean. When a tsunami reaches coastal regions, the wave size increases as the wave travels up from the deep ocean to the shallow coastal areas. Historically, tsunamis have caused much property destruction and loss of life.
Major Tsunamis
Date Origin Effects Death Toll
June 7, 1692 Puerto Rico Trench, Caribbean Port Royal, Jamaica, permanently submerged 2,000
1707 Tokaido-Nankaido, Japan 30,000
October 28, 1746 Lima, Peru 3,800
November 1, 1755 Atlantic Ocean Lisbon destroyed 60,000
February 20, 1835 Peru-Chile Trench ConcepciĆ³n, Chile, destroyed Not Known
December 23, 1854 Nankaido, Japan 3,000
August 8, 1868 Peru-Chile Trench Ships washed several miles inland, town of Arica destroyed 10,000 to 15,000
August 27, 1883 Krakatau Devastation in East Indies 36,0001
June 15, 1896 Japan Trench Swept the east coast of Japan, with waves of 100 ft (30.5 m) at Yoshihimama 27,122
September 30, 1899 Banda Sea, Indonesia 3,620
December 28, 1908 Sicily East coast of Sicily, including Messina and toe of Italy, badly damaged 84,000
March 3, 1933 Japan Trench 9,000 houses and 8,000 ships destroyed in Sanriku district, Honshu 3,000
April 1, 1946 Aleutian Trench Damage to Alaska and Hawaii 159
May 22, 1960 South central Chile Coinciding with a week of earthquakes. Damage to Chile and Hawaii 1,500 (61 in Hawaii)
March 27, 1964 Anchorage, Alaska Severe damage to south coast of Alaska 115
August 23, 1976 Celebes Sea Southwest Philippines struck, devastating Alicia, Pagadian, Cotabato, and Davao 8,000
July 12, 1993 Japan Trench Okushiri Island devastated 200
July 17, 1998 Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea Arop, Warapu, Sissano, and Malol, Papua New Guinea, devastated 2,200
December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean, near Sumatra, Indonesia Coastal areas of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Maldives devastated 250,000
1. 34,000 people died from the tsunami while 2,000 died from fatal burns from the volcanic eruption.


Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA);
United States Geological Survey (USGS).

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